Nipple-Areolar Complex: Normal Anatomy and Benign and Malignant Processes
Mastalgia, signs of inflammation, lump formation in the subareolar region and nipple discharge. In chronic cases fistula formation and nipple deformity may be seen. Squamous metaplasia of the cuboidal subareolar regions of breasts of the ducts leads to obstruction by keratin plugs. This leads to stasis of the secreted material which in turn leads to duct dilation. Significant dilatation further leads to rupture of the thin columnar epithelial lining and secondary bacterial invastion which leads to the formation of an abscess predominantly in the retroaerolar region.